K8S Architecture

K8S is a system for deploying, scaling, and managing containerized applications across a cluster of nodes.

Now Let’s dive into each of these components.

It manages the K8S cluster and performs all administrative tasks.

API Server

It is the front-end of the K8S control plane where all other components interact, to talk with the K8S cluster. It validates and processes the REST requests.

Controller Manager

It continuously watches the shared state of the cluster and makes corrective changes to bring the current state to the desired state.

Examples of controllers:

  • Replication controller
  • Namespace controller
  • Endpoint controller
  • Service account controller


It is responsible for distributing the workload to available nodes across the cluster, based on resource utilization.


It is a simple, distributed, and consistent key-value store. It stores all the relevant data to manage the cluster.

Few examples of data stored are:

  • State and details of pods, services.
  • Data on scheduled, created and deployed jobs.
  • Details about subnets, configmaps, and secrets.

Physical server or VM that runs applications using pods.


It monitors the API server for pods that are scheduled to the node and start the pod’s container by instructing the container runtime engine, then reports the status of the running containers back to the API server.

Kube Proxy

It makes services available to the external hosts, manages network rules and port forwarding. It also serves as a Network proxy and Load balancer and handles the network routing for TCP and UDP packets.

Container Runtime

It is the underlying software that runs the containers and handles the container’s lifecycle in an isolated but lightweight environment.

Platforms that use containers as a container runtime are:


It is the command-line tool to communicate with the API server and send commands to the master node.

Examples of few frequently used commands are:

Originally published at https://medium.com on November 10, 2019.



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